The purpose of this article is to raise public awareness and encourage public participation in the ongoing efforts to save our rivers and the fish that depend on them. Although the San Francisco Bay Delta and the Klamath River are the primary focus of the Water4Fish petition, they are not the only California waterways where fish populations have dramatically declined due to mismanagement and abuse. There are many other examples. Here are just a few.
To read about the river of interest, click on the link to the river or scroll down the page:
The American once supported 2 runs of Chinook salmon: spring and fall. It once supported 3 runs of steelhead: spring, fall and winter. Spring run Chinook and steelhead are now extinct there. The fall run of steelhead is severely depressed. The fall chinook run size was about 178,000 fish in 2000, and 8,870 fish in 2009. This indicates a 95% decline since 2000. The winter steelhead run is about 1,000 to 2,000 returning adults. The remaining wild salmon and steelhead runs on the American River have been severely depleted.
The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation operates the American River as a near exclusive water delivery channel for the Delta pumps, with very little regard for the needs of fish. Early in the year, the cold water held by Folsom Dam is released to meet Delta export pumping and salinity requirements. The cold water supply gets depleted before fall-run Chinook salmon enter the river in October. By then, the water is often too warm for these fish to spawn successfully. Water temperatures above 60 degrees F are particularly hard on adult females, causing reduced egg viability and substantial numbers of females to die before they can spawn.
In 2001, temperatures exceeded 70 degrees in early October and did not reduce to 60 degrees until mid November. After doing carcass surveys that year, CDFG estimated that only 20% of the females spawned successfully and that 80%, 79,000 females, died before spawning. In 2002, temperatures exceeded 66 degrees in early October and did not reduce to 60 degrees until the end of October. An estimated 16,000 females, 30% of total, died without spawning. In 2003, temperatures exceeded 65 degrees and did not reduce to 60 degrees until early November. An estimated 31,000 females, 37% of total, died without spawning. River advocates and fishery biologists blamed these fish kills on bad water management by the Bureau of Reclamation and on the lack of flow and temperature controls for water released from Folsom Reservoir.
In 2005, after years of fish kills and foot-dragging, the Bureau finally agreed to support a flow management standard developed by the Sacramento Valley Water Forum. The standard would create better instream conditions by raising minimum flows and controlling water temperatures so that salmon, steelhead, and other fish can survive. Contrary to the agreement, the Bureau has made very little progress in implementing the standard.
The Bureau continues to release far too much water from Folsom Reservoir from June through August for agricultural irrigation south of the Delta. In many years, this causes the water supply to get depleted before the salmon and steelhead migrations begin. When this happens, remaining water is mostly warm water. The Bureau frequently lowers the flows below those set by the standard during critical spawning and rearing periods in order to conserve the remaining water supply after releasing far too much water earlier in the year. The water they release to support the fish runs is too little and too warm. This can create deadly conditions for salmon and steelhead.
These practices have severely depleted natural reproduction in the river below Nimbus Dam. A large portion of the steelhead and salmon runs are supported by production from the Nimbus Salmon and Steelhead Hatchery, a mitigation hatchery. Production problems, lack of sufficient funding and other constraints have lead to the failure of the hatchery to fully mitigate for the damage caused by operation of the Folsom-Nimbus project.
The Bureau has obligations under the Central Valley Project Improvement Act to protect, enhance, and restore wild fish populations, and to achieve a reasonable balance among competing demands for water, including the survival of wild fish. We believe the Bureau has failed to meet their obligations.
For more information go to: http://www.sarariverwatch.org/
Butte Creek is a 140 mile-long tributary of the Sacramento River. It once supported such large runs of spring-run Chinook salmon that locals reported seeing thousands of them crowding on top of each other as they migrated to their spawning grounds. Runs declined drastically over the last few decades due to dams, water diversions, high water temperatures, pollution, sedimentation, and habitat loss. Declines were so drastic that in 1979, only 10 salmon returned to spawn. Butte Creek’s salmon runs were on the brink of extinction.
Fortunately, that didn’t happen. Butte Creek became part of the Anadromous Fish Restoration Program (AFRP) established after the Central Valley Project Improvement Act (CVPIA) became law in 1992. Collaborative efforts got underway to restore Butte Creek’s spring runs of Chinook salmon. Several projects were completed including stream monitoring, fish screens at diversions, fish ladders at dams, habitat acquisition and restoration, and removal of 6 small irrigation dams. The efforts paid off. Butte Creek’s spring run is now the largest in California. It has averaged 10,000 returning fish per year over the last 12 years. Central valley spring run Chinook are listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. Butte Creek restoration plays an especially vital role for survival and recovery of these endangered fish because it is one of only three streams with genetically pure spring-run Chinook salmon. Butte Creek spring-run Chinook are likely candidates for use in repopulating the restored San Joaquin River.
Severe problems remain to be solved if Butte Creek’s spring run salmon are to survive and recover. The 2002 Klamath fish kill is famous but few people know about the Butte Creek fish kills of 2002 and 2003. Over 7,000 fish died before spawning in 2002 when low, warm water conditions below Centerville Dam triggered a disease outbreak. An even worse fish kill took place in 2003 when 11,200 spring run adults died before spawning. NOAA Fisheries estimated that 80% to 90% of the salmon above the Centerville powerhouse in the low flow section that year died before they could spawn. This was the largest die-off of federally listed salmon in U.S. history. These lethal conditions and fish kills have taken a heavy toll. Estimated numbers of adult spring run salmon returning to Butte Creek fell from nearly 17,000 in 2005 to 2,561 in 2009. This was the lowest number in 12 years.
The lethal water conditions are caused by operation of the DeSabla-Centerville hydroelectric project. PG&E operates the project to generate electricity under licensing authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The 2003 die-off prompted NOAA Fisheries to ask FERC to enter into formal ESA consultations, and to take several steps to avoid or minimize any future fish kills. FERC refused to enter into consultations and did not implement the steps requested by NOAA. We must conclude that FERC does not place much (if any) priority on the survival or recovery of endangered salmon.
Flow releases from Centerville dam are too low, limiting available spawning habitat below the dam. PG&E’s water diversions have greatly reduced the available deep, cold pools of water needed by spring run salmon to hold through the summer until they spawn in the early fall. Higher flows would increase spawning habitat, relieve crowding, increase egg and fry survival, and enable a larger population. USFWS recommended higher flows because this would help the survival and recovery of endangered spring-run Chinook salmon. They wrote that the benefits should outweigh the slight reduction in hydropower generation. FERC did not follow the recommendation.
Butte Creek’s salmon and steelhead are almost entirely blocked by Centerville Dam from migrating upstream to their historic spawning grounds. USFWS wrote that removal of Centerville dam would greatly increase the amount of habitat available to endangered salmon and steelhead. The small amount of electricity generated by the DeSabla-Centerville hydroelectric project could easily be replaced by other sources. With the climate changing, the low elevation holding and spawning areas below this dam will likely not support salmon due to increased temperatures. The upper creek habitat may be their only hope for survival. We believe removal of this dam is the best option and that the benefits would far outweigh the costs.
The Centerville and other diversion canals are not screened, causing many fish to be entrained and trapped. This is highly detrimental to their survival and recovery. Adequate screening would solve this problem.
FERC is in the process of re-licensing PG&E’s operation of the DeSabla-Centerville hydroelectric project. Relicensing was scheduled for completion in October, 2009 but the process has not been completed. Recommendations for ways to mitigate the damage caused by the project were provided to FERC by US Fish & Wildlife Service, National Marine Fishery Service, CA Dept of Fish & Game, Friends of Butte Creek, and others. FERC’s Environmental Assessment (EA) issued in December, 2008 included almost none of the recommended mitigations. While FERC and PG&E refuse to meet their obligations, Butte Creek’s spring run salmon continue to suffer the consequences.
For more information and to support Friends of Butte Creek, go to www.buttecreek.org
The Eel River once supported salmon and steelhead runs that exceeded a half million fish. Compare Eel River historic population estimates with estimates done in 2002. Chinook salmon: 175,000 fish to fewer than 1,000. Steelhead: 255,000 fish to fewer than 1,000. Coho salmon: 70,000 fish to fewer than 100. These declines are all well over 99%. And, the Eel River’s salmon and steelhead runs are probably in even worse shape now than they were in 2002.
Water diversions at the Potter Valley Hydroelectric Project (PVP) and destructive land use practices have nearly annihilated these runs and driven them to the brink of extinction. Now, the Eel’s Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and steelhead populations are all listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act. PG&E operates the project for power generation under licensing authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). It includes two antiquated dams, a diversion tunnel, and a hydroelectric power plant. It has significantly altered the natural flow regime of the river. It has siphoned off enormous amounts of its water, including most of its summertime flows, into the Russian River.
Historically, the Eel's mainstem had enough summertime flows to cover riffles and keep pools cold, creating high quality over summering habitat. Fish found refugia and even grew in good years. Now, almost all summertime flows are diverted out of the river, leaving very little useable habitat during the dry season. What remains in the river is too little and too warm, creating deadly conditions for salmon and steelhead. Making matters worse, much pool habitat has been filled by sedimentaion. Much habitat complexity has been lost due to destructive land use practices.
The dams block many miles of spawning and rearing habitat. They also block transport of bedload including spawning gravels, leaving inadequate spawning habitat downstream of the dams. The dams and diversions cause reduced flows which contribute to high water temperatures and depleted dissolved oxygen, degrade and limit critical habitat, slacken the water, degrade water quality, and contribute to growth of toxic algae. Such conditions can kill salmon and steelhead. These fish need adequate flows of clean, cold, well-oxygenated water to survive. Reduced flows impede or prevent upstream migration of adults to their spawning grounds and downstream migration of juveniles to the ocean. They also provide competitive advantages to the Sacramento pikeminnow: a non-native, voracious predator of juvenile salmon and steelhead. The PVP has done enormous damage to the Eel River’s salmonid populations and continues to push them down a path toward extinction.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) wrote in a 1998 letter to FERC that decommissioning the project and eliminating the out-of-basin diversion would have the greatest benefit, of all potential alternatives, to the Eel River’s salmon and steelhead populations. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) wrote in a 2002 Biological Opinion that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission should study the feasibility and develop a schedule for decommissioning and removing the project. We fully support this recommendation and believe that such a feasibility study is urgently needed. We agree with USFWS and NMFS that removal of the project and elimination of its diversions would play a vital role in helping the Eel River’s salmon and steelhead populations survive and recover.
The Friends of the Eel River (FOER) conservation group has made it their mission to achieve elimination of the diversions and removal of the Potter Valley Project. It’s the right thing to do for the Eel but it’s far easier said than done. Water users in Sonoma and Marin Counties have come to rely on the Eel River’s water. We don’t believe it’s feasible to eliminate the diversions until a way can be found to do so without causing a catastrophic water shortage in the Russian River basin. This is a complex problem with no easy solution. A solution needs to be found if the Eel River’s salmon and steelhead are to survive and recover. And, we find it entirely unfair that Sonoma and Marin Counties are allowed to benefit from the theft of the Eel’s water while their neighbors to the north are forced to suffer the consequences. Ending the diversions would put a stop to an enormous injustice done to the Eel and its fisheries, and to the residents, economies, and environment of northern Mendocino and Humboldt Counties.
A feasibility study is needed which, if successful, will provide the framework to develop a plan to remove of the PVP. It will need to explore alternate water supplies for the Russian River and how they can be brought on-line. These might include groundwater, groundwater recharge with winter runoff, full access to Lake Sonoma’s water, and adding capacity to Lake Mendocino. It will need to explore ways to reduce demand. These might include conservation, recycling, improved irrigation efficiencies, enforcement against illegal diversions, and other improvements. It will need to explore ways to improve water resource management. These might include better storage and release management of Lake Mendocino, and better groundwater management.
The task will be to find some combination of alternate supplies, demand reductions, and management improvements which are sufficient to align supply with demand in the Russian River. The task will be to establish the feasibility and develop a plan for water supply self sufficiency, including the needs of fish, within the Russian River basin. Unfortunately, we believe that the necessary planning will not happen unless it is forced to happen by legal mandate. Such a mandate could be made by the State Water Resources Control Board, or by a court ruling.
If progress cannot be made in the next few years, then relicensing will offer opportunities. The PVP is scheduled for relicensing by FERC in 2022 although the process begins a few years earlier. The age and condition of the project might render it unsuitable for relicensing. Cape Horn dam was built in 1908 and Scott dam was built in 1922. They may not meet safety and seismic stability requirements. If repairs or retrofits are needed then the costs might not be justified by the small amount of electricity generated by the project. Eel River advocates will have an opportunity to petition FERC to deny relicensing. If all else fails, they may be forced to sue to prevent relicensing. Although relicensing will offer opportunities, the Eel’s salmon runs may not survive until 2022 and beyond. A solution is needed as soon as possible. How soon one can be found remains to be seen.
While problems in the Klamath and Central Valley watersheds get lots of attention, the tragic, ongoing destruction of the Eel seems to go unnoticed and ignored by all but a very few. This needs to change. Those who care about California's rivers and fisheries need to wake up to what's happened to the Eel. We all should demand restoration and recovery of the Eel River and its salmon and steelhead populations.
For more information and to support Friends of the Eel River, go to www.eelriver.org
San Joaquin River
The San Joaquin was once one of the most productive salmon spawning rivers in California and supported runs of hundreds of thousands of spring-run Chinook salmon. These were among largest runs on the Pacific Coast. So many salmon migrated up the San Joaquin River during the spawning season that some people who lived near the present site of Friant Dam compared the noise to a waterfall. Since the completion of Friant Dam in the 1940s, the Federal Bureau of Reclamation has used the Dam to divert almost all the San Joaquin's natural flow for irrigation. Nearly 95 percent of the flow has been diverted causing over 60 miles of the river to run dry.
The reduced flows have concentrated agricultural runoff contaminated with pesticides and other toxic chemicals. These effects have destroyed the once legendary salmon runs, have polluted the water in the Bay-Delta estuary, and have degraded water quality for millions of Californians. Destruction of the San Joaquin River exemplifies unbalanced and misguided water management policies, and the tragic consequences of such policies.
Many people had written off the San Joaquin River and its once-legendary salmon runs as lost forever. However, in 1988, Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and a broad coalition of fishing and conservation groups filed suit in U.S. district court in an effort to bring the river and its native fisheries back to life.
In 2004, after 16 years of litigation, the coalition achieved a landmark victory. Judge Lawrence Karlton of the U.S. District Court in Sacramento ruled that the operation of Friant Dam violates one of California's most important fishery protection statutes, Section 5937 of the California Fish and Game Code. The law states: "the owner of any dam shall allow sufficient water to pass over, around or through the dam, to keep in good condition any fish that may be planted or exist below the dam."
He ruled that Bureau of Reclamation and other federal agencies had failed to adequately assess the impacts of water contracts on endangered salmon and other fish and wildlife. He found that the government’s conduct had been “arbitrary and capricious", and that the Bureau had operated the Friant Project in violation of California law for 55 years.
This ruling resulted in the historic San Joaquin River restoration settlement, including a plan to restore salmon and steelhead to the river. Federal legislation was required to authorize and fund the settlement. Both houses of Congress voted to pass the bill in March, 2009. It was signed into law by the President as part of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. This is a major victory for those who fought so long and so hard to restore the San Joaquin!
The largest river restoration project in the country has begun. The first restoration flows were released from Friant Dam beginning in October, 2009. In early 2010, river flows reached the bay, reconnecting the river to its estuary. Interim flows will continue in 2010. These will support data collection and analysis for the design of optimum flows and channel improvements. These improvements must be in place prior to salmon reintroduction in 2013, and full restoration in 2014.
Bay Institute is actively involved in the project to restore the San Joaquin. For more information and to support Bay Institute, go to http://www.bay.org
Restoration of the Trinity is in progress. The Trinity River Division Act of 1955 authorized construction of Trinity dam. This legislation passed with the support of tribes and local residents because they were promised that fish and wildlife wouldn't be impacted by the project. Congressman Clair Engle, who promoted the legislation, promised that the Trinity project would not divert “one bucketful” of water which was necessary in the basin. He assured local stakeholders that, “The argument that it will ruin fishing is absolute nonsense”.
After the dam was completed in 1963, the federal government broke its promise. The Federal Bureau of Reclamation diverted up to 90 percent of the Trinity's annual flow, nearly 1 million acre-feet, to the Central Valley, leaving as little as 10% of historic flows in the Trinity. The consequences included drastically reduced flows, perpetual drought conditions below the dam, degraded water quality, near lethal water temperatures for salmon and steelhead, over 100 miles of habitat lost above the dam, and lost habitat below the dam due to lack of flushing flows and loss of floodplain.
These problems caused dramatic declines in salmon and steelhead populations. While commercial and recreational fishermen, the Yurok and Hoopa tribes, and residents of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Trinity Counties paid the price for the government’s broken promises, agricultural interests in the West San Joaquin Valley profited handsomely from cheap, subsidized water diverted from the Trinity.
Restoration of the Trinity River was the culmination of years of lobbying by the Yurok and Hoopa tribes, fisheries groups and environmental organizations to reverse decades of habitat destruction and water diversions by the federal government. Fishery and environmental groups helped Congressman George Miller and then US Senator Bill Bradley pass the Central Valley Project Improvement Act (CVPIA) in 1992. This act compelled the restoration of the Trinity by substantially reducing diversions from the river into the Central Valley for water export and making restoration of the Trinity a goal.
The Trinity Record of Decision (ROD) was signed by Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt in 2000. It mandated reduced diversions, increased flows in the Trinity, spawning gravel replacement, bank and channel restoration, and other improvements. Agricultural interests sued in an attempt to overturn the ROD and resume the excessive and destructive diversions. The ROD remained in litigation from 2001- 2004 but was finally upheld by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals.
The restoration program is under way and the river's fisheries are improving. However, it is critical that we remain vigilant given the Bureau of Reclamation’s history of trying to export more of the Trinity’s flows to agricultural interests in the Central Valley.
For more information, go to http://www.trrp.net
The Tuolumne River once supported the largest salmon run of any tributary to the San Joaquin River. It’s been estimated that up to 130,000 fall run Chinook salmon once returned to the Tuolumne each year. The Tuolumne also supported large runs of spring-run Chinook salmon and Steelhead. Spring run Chinook are now extinct there. Fall run Chinook have declined to just a few hundred fish in recent years. Declines have been caused by habitat blockage at Don Pedro dam, inadequate flow releases from Don Pedro dam, destruction of riparian vegetation, gravel mining, depletion of spawning gravels, instream gold dredging, and excessive water diversions causing drastically reduced flows. Diversions for urban and agricultural uses deplete the River’s natural flow by 60% on average, and up to 90% in some of the driest years. As a result, dramatic declines in salmon and steelhead populations have occurred over the past several decades.
There is hope. Some of the damage began to be reversed after a settlement agreement with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 1995. This led to the Lower Tuolumne Restoration Plan. This was a combined effort by state and federal agencies, Turlock and Modesto irrigation districts, and several environmental groups. The settlement led to improved flow releases from Don Pedro dam. Although further improvement is needed, this was a step in the right direction. The Restoration Plan includes spawning gravel replacement, floodplain reconstruction, rebuilding of areas damaged by gravel mining, and replacement of riparian vegetation. Land along some sections of the river has been purchased for restoration. The plan also includes a fish study program to monitor the success of habitat restoration work.
It is possible to restore salmon and steelhead runs in the Tuolumne but many challenges remain. The ongoing diversions are too excessive and should be reduced. Flow releases from Don Pedro dam are still too low. The next opportunity to improve flows will come when FERC completes relicensing for operation of the dam. That process begins in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in 2016. In the meantime, the Tuolumne’s fish runs continue to be destroyed. Problems in the San Joaquin River and the delta threaten the Tuolumne’s fish runs. Adult fish returning to the Tuolumne must survive pollution, low flows, and high water temperatures in the San Joaquin. Juvenile fish suffer high mortality as they attempt to migrate out of the San Joaquin and through the delta to the ocean. These problems must be addressed if we are to fully protect and restore the Tuolumne’s fish runs.
For more information and to support Tuolumne River Trust, go to http://www.tuolumne.org
The Yuba River still supports runs of wild Chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Estimates of historic (pre-gold rush) runs suggest that the Yuba once supported 10% of the total Sacramento Basin salmon and steelhead runs of 1-2 Million fish per year. Once too numerous to count, the Yuba’s salmon and steelhead populations are now dangerously low. In recent years, spring Chinook runs have held steady at 200-300 returning adults per year. Wild Fall-run Chinook numbers have dropped to a few thousand returning adults in 2007 and 2008, compared to an average of 15,000 fish in recent decades. Steelhead runs are also depleted with some annual estimates as low as 100 returning adults.
The Yuba River is one of the few major rivers in the Sacramento Valley without a fish hatchery. It provides one of the best and last strongholds for self-sustaining wild salmon populations. The Yuba likely produces the highest number of wild (non-hatchery) Chinook salmon in the entire Central Valley watershed.
Habitat destruction has been caused by dams, water diversions, destructive logging and clear cutting, agricultural pesticide use, and the legacy impacts of gold and gravel mining. Many of these destructive practices still continue today. Ambitious efforts are underway to improve habitat conditions including riparian and side channels in the lower river, and to restore wild salmon and steelhead in the upper river.
These fish now spawn only in the lower Yuba. Englebright Dam, 280 feet high, completely blocks their access to 200 miles of historic spawning grounds in the South and Middle Yuba Rivers, and also a short reach of the North Yuba River. A dozen miles downstream, inadequate fish ladders at Daguerre Point Dam delay and prevent adult salmon from reaching their best available spawning grounds between the two dams. The fish ladders there are so poorly designed that salmon have difficulty finding the entrance, may leap out of them to fall onto dry land and die, or be completely blocked by debris during high flow periods. Outmigrating juveniles attempting to pass Daguerre Point Dam must pass over a 26 foot waterfall into an unnatural gauntlet of predatory fish. One of three large diversions at this dam still does not meet standard screening criteria, trapping and killing thousands of fish. Daguerre Point Dam kills many thousands of juvenile salmonids through entrainment and increased predation.
Daguerre Point and Englebright Dams, operated by the Army Corps of Engineers, have been documented as harming or killing Spring Run Chinook Salmon, Central Valley Steelhead, and Green Sturgeon. These fish are listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) which prohibits harming or killing them. Fish passage at Daguerre Point and Englebright Dams could provide the greatest benefit at the lowest cost for restoration of anadromous fish beyond the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. These dams were constructed in the early 1900s to capture debris from the anticipated resumption of hydraulic gold mining. Fortunately, that destructive practice never resumed. These “debris” dams have not served their intended purpose for over 60 years. Removal of Daguerre Point Dam would restore full access to 12 miles of upstream spawning and rearing habitat, and would improve the survival of juvenile fish as they migrate downriver. Fish passage at Englebright dam would restore access to up to 200 miles of ancestral salmon habitat.
In 2006, South Yuba River Citizens League (SYRCL) and Friends of the River filed suit in federal court against the Corps of Engineers, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Yuba County Water Agency for failure to protect and recover these fish as required by law under the ESA. The purpose was to compel the federal government to put forward a real plan followed by enforceable actions that will lead to the recovery of the Yuba's salmon and steelhead populations.
After decades of mismanagement, failed negotiations, and over four years of litigation to protect wild salmon populations on the brink of extinction, legal victory was finally achieved in July, 2010. Judge Lawrence Karlton of the United States District Court in Sacramento ruled that the current Biological Opinion issued by NMFS in 2007 was “arbitrary and capricious” in that it failed to adequately analyze numerous impacts on listed salmonid species caused by operations of the two dams. He remanded the BiOp back to NMFS and ordered them to correct the deficiencies. This is a major legal victory for the Yuba’s salmon and steelhead. We hope the outcome will be that all parties will live up to their obligations to protect these fish and that the Yuba River’s salmonid populations will recover.
For more information and to support South Yuba Citezens League, go to: http://www.yubariver.org/.
A coalition of tribal, environmental, and community groups re-initiated the Maidu Tribe’s Calling Back the Salmon ceremony in October, 2008 for the first time in 158 years. Before being decimated and displaced by the Gold Rush, the Maidu conducted this ceremony to celebrate and give thanks for the return of the salmon to their ancestral waters each fall. It will be conducted again each October in order to acknowledge and affirm the efforts of the Maidu Tribe and others to heal relationships with our land, our water and our people as preconditions for welcoming the salmon back to the upper Yuba River. All those who support these efforts will be welcome to attend. For more information go to: www.callingbackthesalmon.org